MD -  XXI CongressoLa notte della democrazia in Turchia si è manifestata ulteriormente ieri con l’arresto di un nutrito gruppo di parlamentari di opposizione, di quel partito che aveva impedito all’attuale governo di ottenere la maggioranza assoluta prima della ripetizione delle elezioni, che rappresenta oltre il 10% degli elettori e che esprime agli occhi degli osservatori internazionali la ricerca di una soluzione pacifica alla questione curda e di una visione progressista della società turca.

La valanga che ha travolto lo Stato di diritto in Turchia dopo il tentativo di colpo di Stato del luglio scorso ha determinato l’arresto e la destituzione di migliaia di giudici e pubblici ministeri (circa un terzo dell’intera magistratura), insieme ad avvocati, giornalisti, professori, appartenenti alle forze di polizia, funzionari pubblici, tutti qualificati come terroristi o fiancheggiatori del terrorismo.

Pochi giorni fa è stato arrestato Murat Arslan, presidente di Yarsav, l’associazione professionale di magistrati componente, come MD, di MEDEL, sciolta con decreto governativo ed i cui aderenti sono stati inseriti nella lista di magistrati predisposta a livello centrale per l’arresto e la detenzione preventiva, che si prolunga per molti di loro dal luglio scorso.

E’ davvero difficile apprezzare le basi giuridiche e gli elementi di prova a carico degli arrestati, in una condizione di stato d’emergenza prolungato e prorogato, che impedisce o limita fortemente agli arrestati anche i colloqui con i propri legali e con i propri familiari, in un contesto di sovraffollamento carcerario e di ingiustificata compressione di tutti i diritti di difesa.

Manifestazione Avvocati TurchiQuesta notte in Turchia si è avverato quanto si temeva da tempo, ossia da quando, senza alcuna conseguenza-critica sul piano internazionale, la maggioranza fedele ad Erdogan aveva eliminato l'immunità  parlamentare:: sono stati arrestati o sono ancora ricercati i parlamentari eletti nelle liste dell'HDP, cinquantanove. E' in stato di arresto Demirtas, ed altri 12 parlamentari dell'HDP, una forza politica che ha raggiunto 6 milioni di voti e superato per due volte lo sbarramento del 10% così impedendo la trasformazione in senso presidenziale ed autoritario della Costituzione turca.

Un colpo di stato che riafferma con chiarezza la natura del regime totalitario di Erdogan.

Che questo fosse il destino di quanti si sono spesi democraticamente nelle elezioni in Turchia cercando di affermare la dialettica democratica in un paese di fatto in guerra da decenni era chiaro e prevedibile, ed il pericolo si è accentuato, nel disinteresse generale, dopo il tentato colpo di stato;  nelle scorse settimane e negli scorsi mesi sono stati arrestati tutti gli appartenenti alle “categorie a rischio”: sindaci, avvocati, magistrati, giornalisti, ma anche accademici, persone di cultura.

Si parla ormai con quasi certezza di reintroduzione della pena di morte, e molti oppositori al regime di Erdogan la vita l'hanno persa davvero. Per tutti, ricordiamo Tahir Elci, presidente dell'Ordine degli Avvocati di Diyarbakir, assassinato in piazza.

Come Giuristi crediamo ormai indispensabile per chiunque abbia a cuore le regole della democrazia e del diritto prendere una posizione chiara e forte contro la barbarie che il regime di Erdogan sta ristabilendo in Turchia. E la prima, improrogabile, azione che non può essere evitata è l'immediata sospensione dell'accordo Ue-Turchia, che assicura al governo di Erdogan ingenti stanziamenti formalmente destinati al rafforzamento del controllo sulle frontiere ed all'accoglienza dei profughi. L'Ue sta destinando i profughi delle guerre in Siria al paese forse più  insicuro e più totalitario dell'intera area mediorientale!

The Istanbul Security Directorate in Vatan Street where some of the cases of police torture and ill-treatment documented by Human Rights Watch took place.  © 2016 Human Rights Watch Summary: "Because of the state of emergency, nobody will care if I kill you. I will just say I shot you while you tried to run away" - Police officer to a detainee, overheard by family members of another detainee.


"You won’t make it out of here alive. We now have 30 days" - Police officer referencing the extended period of police detention to a detainee while threatening to rape him with a baton, as told to the detainee’s lawyer.

"We had come a long way. The anti-torture struggle in Turkey was important. But torture is like a contagious disease. Once it starts it will spread. It is painful to see the reversal taking place now." - Lawyer involved in anti-torture cases in Turkey who was detained together with people he believed were being tortured

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On July 15-16, 2016, elements of the military attempted a coup d’état against the elected government of Turkey. Those involved in the coup deployed tanks in the streets of Istanbul and Ankara, bombed the parliament with fighter jets, and opened fire from helicopters on people who took to the street to protest the attempted coup. At least 241 citizens and security personnel died in the fighting.

Shortly after the failed coup the Turkish government declared a state of emergency, a step they are entitled to take in exceptional circumstances. They also have the right – and even the obligation – to protect the public, investigate crimes committed during the attempted coup, including murder and causing bodily harm, and to hold those responsible to account. 

Association of European Administrative Judges (AEAJ) European Association of Judges (EAJ), Judges for Judges, Magistrats Européens pour la Démocratie et les Libertés (MEDEL)The Platform for an Independent Judiciary in Turkey, which is composed of the four European judges associations: Association of European Administrative Judges (AEAJ), European Association of Judges (EAJ), Judges for Judges, Magistrats Européens pour la Démocratie et les Libertés(MEDEL).

CONSIDERING that Turkey had suffered a terrible attack against its democratic institutions on 15.7.2016 which killed almost three hundreds of its people and left much more seriously wounded, an event which has to be strongly condemned

UNDERLINING that those whose involvement in this coup d’état have been proved should be hold accountable

WELCOMING the fact that all political parties and the Turkish people have delivered a strong statement for democracy

REMINDING that a basic pillar of democracy is the rule of law and a commitment to the safeguarding of human rights, enshrined in the European Convention of Human Rights (EHCR), to which Turkey is a party,

ENCJThe ENCJ reiterates its unreserved condemnation of the recent attempted coup in Turkey. The loss of life incurred in this attack on a democratically elected government is inexcusable. Those responsible should be made accountable through an open, fair and impartial judicial process conforming with international standards.

The ENCJ has expressed its concern, both before and after the attempted coup, that the approach of the High Council for Judges and Prosecutors to the transfer, suspension, removal and prosecution of judges has not been consistent with the principles of judicial independence. The ENCJ has received persuasive information that these procedures have taken place without respecting the principles referred to above.

The board of the ENCJ has repeatedly requested the Turkish High Council for Judges and Prosecutors for details of the procedures followed relating to the extraordinary mass dismissal of thousands of judges and prosecutors and to demonstrate that minimum international standards in relation to disciplinary proceedings against judges and prosecutors have been followed. To date no satisfactory response has been received to these vital inquiries.

As a result of the information that the ENCJ has received and the failure of the Turkish High Council to provide any satisfactory response to it, the board is forced to conclude that the Turkish High Council for Judges and Prosecutors no longer meets the requirements of the ENCJ that it is independent of the executive and legislature so as to ensure the independence of the Turkish Judiciary. The board of the ENCJ has accordingly resolved unanimously to propose to its General Assembly the suspension of the status of Observer to the ENCJ of the HSYK. To this end it has called an extraordinary general meeting which will take place in December 2016.

Scuola Superiore della Magistratura (Photo: www.scuolamagistratura.it)Dear Miss Seda Arslan, the Scuola Superiore della Magistratura (hereinafter SSM) has received the invitation sent by the Turkish Judicial Academy for the participation in the "workshop program of Comparative Law Studies on Judicial Training" planned for the second half of November in Turkey.

The SSM board of Directors, in its meeting held on 6 September 2016, has unanimously decided to reject the invitation.

On July 21, 2016, the SSM joined the statement issued the day before by the Italian Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura, that expressed indignation and concern because of the arrest and dismissal of more than 2700 Turkish judges and prosecutors following the post-coup crackdown. It urged the Turkish Authorities to respect judicial independence, fair trial and fundamental rights and exhorted them to comply with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights. At the same time, the Italian Judicial Council decided to suspend every form of cooperation with the Turkish Judicial Council.

Since then, according to press headlines, the situation has not changed in Turkey. More than 1600 judges and prosecutors are still detained, together with professors, journalists and public employees; thousands were dismissed from the profession.

MEDEL SMMP MPDAccording to most recent information on Turkish judiciary, 2.847 judges and prosecutors were dismissed following a decision of the Turkish High Council for judges and prosecutor (HSYK) on 24.8.2016.

Such decision appears to have been adopted:

- Without hearings of judges and prosecutors subject to the procedure;
- Without right of defence;
- Without individual assessment;

- Without allegation of objective facts;
- On grounds of emergency based upon suspicions and alleged personal relations.

Representatives of Ministério Público Democrático, Sindicato dos Magistrados do Ministério Público and MEDEL (Magistrats Européens pour la Démocratie et les Libertés), gathered in São Paulo on the occasion of the 5th Congress of MPD, assist astonished to the infringements, in such a procedure, of the principles of Rule of Law, Independence of the Judiciary, rules for disciplinary procedures, objective grounds for liability, individual responsibility.

Letter to the High Judicial Council of Turkey by the Platform for an Independent Judiciary in TurkeyLetter sent today to the High Judicial Council of Turkey by the Platform for an Independent Judiciary in Turkey:

Honorable President, The international associations of  judges, united in this platform, have learnt that the High Council of Judges and Prosecutors (HSYK) is currently dealing with the removal and dismissal of 3500 judges and prosecutors who are suspended and under criminal investigation. A majority of this group is presently detained.

Regarding this difficult, highly sensitive and far-reaching act, the below mentioned  international associations, strongly appeal to the High Council of Judges and Prosecutors that these decisions on the dismissal/removal ofjudges should be in line with international and European standards.

In the light of the fact that irremovability of  judges is an essential element of judicial  independence, these standards provide only for very limited and specific exceptions from this principle to be applied only within the framework of due procedure.

American Bar AssociationAmerican Bar Association,
Massachusetts Bar Association
Report to The House of Delegates
Adopted as Revised

Resolution

RESOLVED, That the American Bar Association, which supports the independence of the judiciary and the legal profession and opposes any Nation’s state’s detention of individuals without charge or access to counsel, calls upon the Government of the Republic of Turkey to:

Ein junger Mann schaut auf ein auf eine Fahne aufgedrucktes Porträt des türk Präsidenten ErdoganViele der entlassenen und verhafteten Richter und Staatsanwälte sind bei ihren deutschen Kollegen bekannt: Kaum vorstellbar, dass sie alle der Gülen-Bewegung angehören.

Der Deutsche Richterbund, die größte Vereinigung von Richtern und Staatsanwälten hierzulande, hat einen Brief an die Bundeskanzlerin geschrieben: Viele der entlassenen und verhafteten Kollegen seien bei deutschen Richtern bekannt. Es stünde außer Zweifel, dass gerade die Mitglieder der türkischen Richtervereinigung mit dem Namen „Yarsav“  integer seien und sich für den Rechtsstaat engagieren. Yarsav und ihren Mitgliedern Sympathien für die Putschisten oder die Gülen-Bewegung vorzuwerfen, sei nicht nachzuvollziehen.

Richterbund: Türkische Kollegen von „Yarsav“ keine Gülen-Leute

Auch Richter Thomas Guddat kennt  Yarsav. Guddat ist Mitglied einer kleineren deutschen Richterorganisation, der Neuen Richtervereinigung, und berichtet in seinem Dresdner Arbeitszimmer, dass er über internationale Kontakte immer wieder mit türkischen Kollegen von Yarsav zusammen gekommen ist:

„Uns liegen nach dem Putschversuch sehr besorgniserregende Informationen vor. Yarsav-Mitglieder wurden suspendiert und verhaftet. Wir konnten auf Youtube sogar ein Video ansehen, welches einen uns persönlich bekannten türkischen Richterkollegen zeigt, wie er die Hände auf dem Rücken mit Handschellen gefesselt von zwei Polizisten abgeführt wurde.“

Le MondePar Robert Badinter, Virginie Duval, Clarisse Taron, Christophe Régnard et Simone Gaboriau.

Qu’on ne s’y trompe pas : la purge de l’institution judiciaire, de la fonction publique et des médias par le président Recep Tayyip Erdogan n’est pas une réponse à la tentative de coup d’Etat. Il ne s’agit pas de sauvegarder l’Etat de droit, comme on a pu le dire au lendemain du 15 juillet 2016. La lame de fond autoritaire qui sape les fondements des institutions depuis 2013 traduit la volonté du président turc de museler toute opposition. Les récentes révocations en cascade et les arrestations arbitraires s’inscrivent dans la dynamique de neutralisation des contre-pouvoirs à l’œuvre depuis plusieurs années.

Statement by the Union of Judges of the Czech Republic on the removal of judges in TurkeyThe independence of the judiciary is one of the fundamental values of a democratic state and one constituent element of this is the possibility of removing a judge only for the reasons laid down by law within a due process. A state which consciously casts doubt on or infringes the independence of the judiciary deviates from the principles of democracy.

The immediate removal of almost 3,000 judges in Turkey and the imprisonment of some raises fundamental doubts as to adherence to the principle of the independence of the judiciary embedded in UN General Assembly Resolution 90/32 of 29 November 1985 and 40/146 of 13 December 1985, in Council of Europe Recommendation 7/1981, 86/1984, 12/1996 and others, in the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as amended by Protocols Nos 3, 5, 8 (Article 6(1)) and in the International Pact on Civil and Political Rights (Article 14).

A.D.M.I.A.D.M.I. Associazione Donne Magistrato Italiane esprime dolore per l’inaccettabile situazione in atto in Turchia ove, in una sola notte, sono stati sospesi ‘senza processo’ n.2749 magistrati, un numero che è pari ad un quarto della magistratura turca e molti dei quali anche incarcerati, come peraltro avvenuto anche per tanti avvocati, docenti e funzionari statali.

La situazione con il passare dei giorni non sembra mutare, nonostante il susseguirsi di appelli da tutta Europa e dal mondo, al contrario si susseguono notizie sempre più gravi, tra cui quella della confisca dei beni dei magistrati sospesi e dell'imbavagliamento della stampa, tanto che la Turchia appare oggi ben lontana dai valori di civiltà giuridica europea. La situazione in atto, infatti, è incompatibile con le regole dello Stato di diritto e delle libertà fondamentali e lo è pur la Turchia facendo parte del Consiglio d'Europa ed avendo -tra le altre- sottoscritto la Convenzione dei Diritti dell'Uomo, di cui costituisce certo grave violazione l’avvenuta lesione della indipendenza ed autonomia dei giudici.

Network of the Presidents of the Supreme Judicial Courts of the European UnionThe Network of the Presidents is deeply concerned arising from reports of the recent removal from office of over 2,700 members of the Judiciary and prosecutors in Turkey, and of orders for the arrest of many Judges and Prosecutors.

Immediately following the attempted coup the Turkish Republic has suspended, dismissed and/or arrested thousands of people, including many Judges. Among those are judges of the Council of State and the Court of Cassation of Turkey. The number of citizens involved, and the announcement by the President of the Republic of Turkey of the possible restoration of the death penalty, also raise serious concerns.

Der BundesgerichtshofDas Netzwerk der Präsidentinnen und Präsidenten der Obersten Gerichtshöfe der Europäischen Union, dem auch die Präsidentin des Bundesgerichtshofs angehört, hat heute eine Stellungnahme zur Situation in der Türkei abgegeben, in der es seine tiefe Besorgnis über die dortigen Geschehnisse zum Ausdruck bringt.

Das Netzwerk sieht die aktuellen Ereignisse, insbesondere die Entlassung und Verhaftung Tausender Richter, als Angriff auf die Unabhängigkeit der Justiz und Bedrohung für den Rechtsstaat in einem Mitgliedsland des Europarates. Es ruft auf zur Beachtung der Rechtsstaatlichkeit und der Menschenrechte und fordert auf zur Anwendung bestehender Monitoring-Instrumente zur Wahrung der Menschenrechte sowohl auf der Ebene des Europarates als auch der Vereinten Nationen.

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